1. The subject of the science of akhlāq is khulq, which is our moral character and refers to those qualities which are not physical. The science of akhlāq also deals with good and bad actions.
  2. Morality can be used to refer to different things, such as the moral character of a person, a group, or a community; or to a science which deals with moral character traits or moral actions, in which case it is very close to the Islamic science of akhlāq.
  1. Ethics can mean morality as a science or it can mean moral philosophy as a science. The latter deals with the science of akhlāq as a subject. In other words, it tries to investigate the presuppositions, concepts, epistemology, and even the ontology of the science of akhlāq.
  2. As we are concerned with the Islamic science of akhlāq, it does not make much of a difference if we use the term “Islamic morality” or the term “Islamic ethics.”
  3. The Islamic science of akhlāq is responsible for studying moral virtues and how to achieve them, moral vices and how to remove them, and good and bad actions.
  4. Only voluntary actions are studied in akhlāq because there should always be a role for human freedom and control.
  5. Gex and Foulquie limit the science of morality to the study of behaviour.
  6. Mullā Sadrā believes that the science of akhlāq is the science which deals with character traits and the actions which originate from them.
  7. Ayatullāh Mutahharī: The science of akhlāq teaches us how to behave and how to be. The science of akhlāq is the science that deals with human character traits. In the science of akhlāq only the qualities that are possible to acquire or remove are discussed because the aim of this science is to help us to differentiate between virtues and vices and then to try to acquire virtues or strengthen those we already possess, and remove vices.
  8. Actions originate from one’s entire personality; however, this does not necessarily mean that they come from a directly related quality.
  9. People’s diverse understandings of virtues and vices have nothing to do with the definition of akhlāq which is to study good and bad qualities and actions.
  10. The aim of the science of akhlāq or the aim of one who studies it is to promote good actions and virtues amongst human beings