In the previous lesson, we talked about the development of the science of akhlāq in the Islamic world and then we promised to focus on the contemporary age.

As mentioned before, ethics has always received great attention from Muslims in general and Muslim scholars in particular. However, in contemporary times, the science of akhlāq has received even more attention because morality has become increasingly important. The further we are from the early days of Islam, the closer we come to the end of times, and so our need for morality is greater. So many challenges, old and new, emerge each and every day that we will not be able to cope with them unless we are equipped with morality. Of course, by this we mean morality in its comprehensive sense, not merely morality with respect to, for example, our behaviour with others. As will be explained later, morality includes such aspects as our behaviour towards ourselves, towards God, towards others, or indeed towards the environment. It can be observed that due to the development of Islamic sciences and because some people have now started to specialise in different fields of Islamic studies, more academic work has been done on morality and related subjects such as moral philosophy. Therefore, in this lesson we present a brief report on what has happened in the last few decades until now. As you will see, the major part of this development started and is happening in the Shi‘a seminaries in general and in the Islamic seminaries of Qum in particular.