• Abd al-Jabbar (1384 A.H), Al-Mughni fi al-Tawhïd wa al- ‘Adl (Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyah)
• Abu Hatam, Ahmad b. Hamdan al-Radi, Al-Zinah fi al- kalimat al-Islamiyah al-Arabiyah (Egypt: Dar al-Kitab al- Arabi)
• Ash‘ari, Ali ibn Isma‘il Abu al-Hasan, Maqalat al-Islamiyin wa Ikhtilaf al-Musallin (Beirut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al- ‘Arabi)
• Askari, S.M. (1993), The Role of Holy Imams in the Revival of Religion, Vols. 1 & 2 (Tehran: Naba’ Organization)
• Askari, S.M. (1996), Ma‘alim al-Madrisatayn (Tehran: al-Majma‘ al-‘Ilmii al-Islami, 6th Imprint)
• Chittick, W. C. (ed. and trans.) (1981), A Shi‘ite Anthology (Albany, New York: Sunny Press), Selected by S.M.H. Tabataba’i and Introduced by S.H. Nasr
• Ezzati, A. (1976), Shi‘i Islamic Law and Jurisprudence (Lahore: Ashraf Press)
• Fadli, ‘Abd al-Hadi (1992), Tarikh al-Tashri‘ al-Islami (Beirut: Dar al-Nasr)
• Fadli, ‘Abd al-Hadi (1997), The Imamiyah Sect: A Study of its Origins, Beliefs and Laws (Beirut: Al-Ghadeer), Trans. H. Atiyah
• Ghaffari, S. (1976), Shi‘aism or Original Islam (Tehran: Published by the author, Third edition. First edition was published in 1967)
• Gharifi, ‘Abdullah (1417 A.H/1997), Al-Tashayyu‘: Nushu’uhu–Marahiluhu–Muqawwimatuhu (Damascus: S. A. Nuri, 6th Reprint with revisions and additions)
• Gilsenan, Michael (2000), Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Middle East (London & New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. Revised edition. First published in 1982 by Croon Helm. Reprinted in 1990 & 1993 by I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd).
• Hilli, ‘Allamah (1363 A.H), Anwar al-Malakut fi Sharh al-Yaqut (Qum: Radi and Bidar)
• Hilli, ‘Allamah (1982), Nahj al-Haqq wa Kashf al-Sidq (Qum: Radi and Bidar)
• Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarjimah Ali (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr)
• Ibn al-Athir (1421 A.H), Al-Nihayah fi Gharib al-Hadith wa al-Athar (Al-Dammam: Dar Ibn al-Jawzi)
• Ibn al-Athir, Muhammad (1415 A.H/1995), Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah)
• Ibn Hajar, Ahmad Haythami, Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah fi al- Radd ‘ala Ahl al-Bid‘ah (Beirut)
• Ibn Hajar, al-‘Asqalani, Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah (Beirut)
• Ibn Kathir, Isma‘il (412 A.H/1992), Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (Beirut: Makatabah al-Ta‘aruf)
• Ibn Khaldun, An Introduction to History (al-Muqaddamah), English version, London, 1967 Edition.
• Iji, Abd al-Rahman b. Ahmad (1997), Al-Mawaqif (Beirut: Dar al-Jil)
• Ja‘fariyan, R. (1985), Ukdhubat Tahrif al-Qur’an bayn al- Shi‘ah wa al-Sunnah (Tehran: Islamic Propagation Organization)
• Kashif al-Ghita’ (1993), The Origin of Shi‘ite Islam and its Principles (Qum: Ansariyan)
• Kulayni, Muhammad (1397 A.H), Usül al-Kafi (Tehran: Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah)
• Madelung, Wilfred (2001), The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. First published 1997 and reprinted 1997 & 2001).
• Majlisi, Muhammad B. (1983), Bihar al-Anwar (Beirut: Al-
• Mufid, Shaykh Muhammad b. M. b. Nu‘man (1413 A.H), Awā’il al-Maqālāt (Qum: Kungereh-e Sheykh-e Mufid, 1413). In this edition the main text starts on page 33.
• Mughniyah, M.J. (1993), Al-Shi‘ah fi al-Mizan (Qum:Al-
• Muzaffar, M.R. (1993), The Faith of Shi‘a Islam (Qum: Ansariyan Publications).
• Nasr, S.H. (1989), Expectations of the Millennium: Shi‘ism in History (New York: State University of New York Press)
• Nawbakhti, al-Hasan ibn Musa (1405 A.H), Firaq al- Shi‘ah (Beirut)
• Pavlin, J. (1997) “Sunni Kalam and Theological Controversies” in History of Islamic Philosophy Part 1, edited by Seyyed Hussein Nasr and Oliver Leaman, London: Routledge
• Qazwini, Sayed Mustafa (2000), Inquiries about Shi‘a Islam (California: The Islamic Educational Centre of Orange County)
• Richard, Yann (1991, English translation first published 1995), Shi‘ite Islam (Oxford, UK & Cambridge, USA: Blackwell Publishers)
• Sadr, S.M. (1997), Nash’at al-Tashayu‘ wa al-Shi‘ah (Beirut: Al-Ghadeer, 2nd Imprint)
• Saduq, Muhammad b. Ali.b. Husayn b. Babawayh (1980), Al-Amālí (Beirut: Mu’assisat al-A‘lami)
• Saduq, Muhammad b. Ali.b. Husayn b. Babawayh, Al- Tawhid (Qum: Jamā‘at al-Mudarrisin)
• Safi, Lutfullah, Muntakhab al-Athar (Tehran: Maktabah al-Sadr)
• Shahrestani, Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Karim (1404 A.H), Al-Milal wa al-Nihal (Beirut: Dar al-Ma‘rifah)
• Subhani, Ja‘far (2001), Doctrines of Shi‘i Islam: A Compendium of Imami Beliefs and Practices (London: I.B.Tauris), trans. Reza. Shah-Kazemi
• Subhani, Ja‘far, Al-Milal wa al-Nihal, vol. 6 (Qum: Imam Sadiq Inst.)
• Suyuti, Jalal al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman (1993), Al-Durr al- Manthur (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr)
• Tabari, Muhammad (1407 A.H), Tarikh al-Umam wa al- Muluk (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah)
• Tabataba’i, S. M. H. (1975), Shi‘ite Islam (Albany, New York: Sunny Press), translated by Sayyid H. Nasr
• Tusi, Khajeh Nasir al-Din, Talkhis al-Muhassal, “The Treatise on al-‘Ismah”
• Wa’ili, Ahmad (1983), Huwiyah al-Tashayu‘ (Qum: Dar al- Kitab al-Islami, 2nd edition)
• Wardani, Salih (1999), Aqa’id al-Sunnah wa ‘Aqa’id al- Shi‘ah: al-Taqarub wa al-Taba‘ud (Beirut: Al-Ghadeer)
• Westerland, David & Svanberg, Ingvar (1999), Islam Outside the Arab World (Richmond: Curzon Press)
References to hadiths from Sahih of Bukhari, Sahih of Muslim, Sunan of al-Nisa’i, Sunan of Abu Dawud, Sunan of Ibn Majah, Sunan of al-Tirmidhi, Sunan of al-Darimi and Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbal are according to Sakhr serial number followed in Mawsú‘ah al-Hadith al Sharif (Version 1.1, 1991-1996).
Recommended reading list:
– Chittick, W. C. (ed. and trans.) (1981), A Shi‘ite Anthology (Albany, New York: Sunny Press), Selected by S.M.H. Tabataba’i and Introduced by S.H. Nasr
– Muzaffar, M. R. (1993), The Faith of Shi‘a Islam (Qum: Ansariyan Publications).
– Nasr, S. H. (1989), Expectations of the Millennium: Shi‘ism in History (New York: State University of New York Press)
– Qazwini, S. M. (2000), Inquiries about Shi‘a Islam (California: The Islamic Educational Centre of Orange County)
– Shomali, M. A. (2003), Shi‘i Islam: Origins, Faith and Practices (London: Islamic College for Advanced Studies)
– Subhani, J. (2001), Doctrines of Shi‘i Islam: A Compendium of Imami Beliefs and Practices (London: I.B.Tauris), trans. Reza. Shah Kazemi
– Tabataba’i, S. M. H. (1975), Shi‘ite Islam (Albany, New York: Sunny Press), trans. Sayyid H. Nasr.
For further reading:
Shi‘i Islam: Origins, Faith and Practices
by Dr Mohammad A. Shomali
(London: Islamic College for Advanced Studies, 2003 & 2010)
“Muslims are divided into two major groups: the majority is called Sunni and the second Shi‘ite. What are the common features in virtue of which both groups are said to follow the religion of Islam? What are the fundamental differences in doctrine and practice between these two groups? Such questions are answered clearly and intelligently in this book by a Shi‘ite theologian and philosopher. This book will be of interest to students of Islam and of religious studies generally.” (Dr. M. Legenhausen)
“Dr Shomali has written a concise and scholarly introduction to the distinctive teachings of Shi‘i Islam, its cultural and intellectual as well as doctrinal features, its historical unfolding and contemporary situation. He is to be congratulated on his achievement.” (Prof. H. Algar, University of California, Berkeley)
ISBN: 1 904063 11 X
Discovering Shi’i Islam Mohammad Ali Shomali 9th Edition