In the Qurʾān, fitnā and its derivatives appear several times. The most common meaning for this word is ‘persecution’ or ‘trials’.
In Islamic History, the term fitnā has been used to describe the ‘sedition’ which was seen in the civil wars which took place in the first 40 years after the death of Prophet Muhammad (s) amongst the companions.
This is a controversial usage because it considers the losing parties to have committed sedition. For example, the ‘first fitna’ is used to refer to the actions of Imam Ali An abbreviation for the Arabic ‘Alayhi salām’ or ‘Alayhā salām’, which translates to: ‘Peace and blessings be upon him/her.’ Follows the name of a maʿsūm (infallible, according to Shi’ah belief) - including all of the... More in defending his right to leadership after the death of the 3rd Khalifah, up until Direct translation: Leader. In Sunni Islam, Imāms are the leaders of the Muslim community who lead prayers, provide guidance and help run communities. In the Shi’ah faith, the Imāms are the infallible, divinely appointed leaders... More Ḥasan’s (ʿa) peace treaty with Muawiya.
The title ‘second fitnā’ is given to a period of multiple uprisings during the time of the Khalifah Yazid I, including that of Imām Ḥusayn (ʿa).
Shi’An abbreviation for ‘After Hijrah.’ Used in English to denote the current era of the Islamic lunar calendar. This era began with the Prophet’s and early Muslims' migration from Mecca to Medina (the event was... More Muslims, therefore, do not use the term fitnā in this way because they consider their Imām’s actions to be in line with the will of The proper name of God in Islam and in Arabic, referring to all of His perfect attributes at once. This name is a proper noun, and no other entity or being is allowed to have... More and the Prophet An abbreviation for the Arabic ‘Ṣallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa Āle hi wa-sallam’, which translates to: ‘Peace and blessings be upon him and his family - it is written after the name of Prophet Muḥammad (ṣ)... More, and standing against tyranny.