The third Caliphate (dynasty of Muslim political rulers) after Prophet  Muḥammad (ṣ), who followed the Umayyad dynasty (who were overthrown).  The Abbasids traced their roots to the  Prophet’s (ṣ) uncle, ʿAbbās ibn ʿAbdul-Muttalib.

Their rule was from 132 AH to 923 AH. They inherited the vast Umayyad empire, however it shrank and splintered over the centuries due to Abbasid rule. They were greatly weakened by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century,  and then fully extinguished by the Ottomans in the 16th century.

The Abbasids were antagonists of the Ahl al-Bayt and their followers; and their caliphs were responsible for the martyrdom of six of the Imāms, beginning with Imām aṣ–Ṣādiq (ʿa). They also imprisoned the 7th, 10th, and 11th Imāms.