The third Caliphate (dynasty of Muslim political rulers) after Prophet Muḥammad An abbreviation for the Arabic ‘Ṣallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa Āle hi wa-sallam’, which translates to: ‘Peace and blessings be upon him and his family - it is written after the name of Prophet Muḥammad (ṣ)... More, who followed the Umayyad dynasty (who were overthrown). The Abbasids traced their roots to the Prophet’s (ṣ) uncle, ʿAbbās ibn ʿAbdul-Muttalib.
Their rule was from 132 An abbreviation for ‘After Hijrah.’ Used in English to denote the current era of the Islamic lunar calendar. This era began with the Prophet’s and early Muslims' migration from Mecca to Medina (the event was... More to 923 AH. They inherited the vast Umayyad empire, however it shrank and splintered over the centuries due to Abbasid rule. They were greatly weakened by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and then fully extinguished by the Ottomans in the 16th century.
The Abbasids were antagonists of the Translates to ‘People of the Household.’ In Islam, this phrase refers to the household of Prophet Muḥammad (ṣ). Most commonly, its meaning is confined to the Maʿsūmin (infallibles) - including Prophet Muḥhammad's daughter Fāṭimah azl-Zahra,... More and their followers; and their caliphs were responsible for the martyrdom of six of the Imāms, beginning with Direct translation: Leader. In Sunni Islam, Imāms are the leaders of the Muslim community who lead prayers, provide guidance and help run communities. In the Shi’ah faith, the Imāms are the infallible, divinely appointed leaders... More aṣ–Ṣādiq An abbreviation for the Arabic ‘Alayhi salām’ or ‘Alayhā salām’, which translates to: ‘Peace and blessings be upon him/her.’ Follows the name of a maʿsūm (infallible, according to Shi’ah belief) - including all of the... More. They also imprisoned the 7th, 10th, and 11th Imāms.