An abbreviation for the Arabic ‘Alayhi- salām’ or ‘Alayhā salām’, which translates to: ‘Peace and blessings be upon him/her’. Follows the name of a maʿsūm (infallible, according to Shi’ah belief) – including all of the past Prophets and Messengers, and is written as a sign of respect. The twelfth Imam is the exception to this.